Reconstruction of the Reign of Manasseh King of Judah.1
The King's Calendar which is a Computer Generated Synchronous Chronology for this time period, determines the following in relation to King Manasseh of Judah.
1. Manasseh was Born around 698 BCE
2. Manasseh did not co-reign with Hezekiah his father
3. Manasseh Commenced to Reign over Judah in 687 BCE
4. Manasseh was taken captive in his 22nd year 667/666 BCE
5. Manasseh died in 637/636 BCE
6. Manasseh was around 67 Artificial Years or 61 solar years of age when he died
7. Manesseh Reigned 55 artificial or 51 Regnal/solar Years
Manasseh King of Judah.
Manasseh the boy king, came to the throne of Judah during the last days of the reign of Sennacherib king of Assyria. Although he may have demonstrated poor political judgement during the reigns of Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal, the shifting fortunes of Assyria from around 665 BCE, and particularly from 655 BCE, guaranteed that the last twenty or thirty years of his reign remained relatively undisturbed.
2 Chronicles Chapter 33:11 tells us that because of his sins, the king of Assyria took Manasseh with hooks, and bound him with fetters, and carried him to Babylon. [There is debate over where he was or should have been taken - Ninevah or Babylon].
This description of Manasseh's barbaric humiliation, is corroborated by Rawlinson2, who points out that this practice of bringing prisoners of importance into the presence of a conquering monarch by means of a thong attached to a hook or ring passed through the upper lip, under lip or both, is not biblical fiction, but an Assyrian custom from which not even royalty was exempt.
He also points out that Manasseh's release was not the standard oriental practice, but it does suit Esarhaddon's character. Such acts of clemency were demonstrated on other occasions, for example, Pharaoh Necho's release by Ashurbanipal. Brinkman3 points out that Esarhaddon seems also to have been excessively preoccupied with manifestations of divine will, and this too may account for Manasseh's favourable treatment.
While these writers suggest that given a lack of any chronological material to date Manasseh's captivity, Esarhaddon seems to be the most likely king to have taken him captive, it is interesting to note that the Aggadah4 informs us that Manasseh was taken captive in his 22nd year. Whether we presume that this snippet of folklore comes to us in the original 'solar' form or otherwise, the Aggadah places Manasseh's captivity at around 667/66 BCE, during the reign of Ashurbanipal, and at the time that he spared Pharaoh Necho of Egypt.
Manasseh's 22nd and 23rd artificial years both commence in 667 BCE, [January & December], whilst his 22nd solar year commences in March/April of 666 BCE This can be seen on the Chart at the end of this article
Egyptian, Assyrian and Babylonian Kings during Manesseh's Reign.
- Taharqa 690 - 664
- Tanwetamani 664 - 656 (Tanuatamun)
- Psamtik I 656 - 609
- Sennacherib 705 - 681
- Esarhaddon 680 - 669
- Ashurbanipal 669 - 627
1 Original Source Article: Manasseh King of Judah - Son of Hezekiah
2 Rawlinson, G. (1885) Egypt and Babylon: From Scripture and Profane Sources. Hodder and Stoughton
3 Brinkman: Cambridge Ancient History Vol III Part 2. (1991) U.K.Cambridge University Press, p.40
4 Aggadah (Haggadah): Refer to the Encyclopaedia Judaica or Chaim.R. (1968 ) the Walls of Jerusalem: An Excursion into Jewish History Alfred.A.Knopf New York p.68.
5 Refer to:
- Ross. K.L. (2001) Kings of Kush (Ethiopia) XXV Dynasty of Egypt
- "Psamtik" The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
- "Taharka" The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
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The Western World is asleep or otherwise so preoccupied with its politically correct agendas, that it doesn't see the forest for the trees. Islam today, is like the Christianity of the Middle Ages - determined by hook or by crook to convert the world, and like the Roman Catholic Church of old, is full of people whose 'method of conversion choice' is the sword (or in our case - terrorism).
R.P.BenDedek (pseudonym) is the Author of 'The King's Calendar: The Secret of Qumran' (http://www.kingscalendar.com ), and is a guest columnist and stand-in Editor at Magic City Morning Star News. He is also the Editor of the 'Writers Journal' at Kingscalendar.com. An Australian, he has been teaching Conversational English in China since 2003.
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"The King's Calendar" is a chronological study of the historical books of the Bible (Kings and Chronicles), Josephus, Seder Olam Rabbah, and the (Essene) Damascus Document of The Dead Sea Scrolls.